Nixon Launched The 30 Years' War as Election Issue

Nixon Launched The 30 Years' War as Election Issue
Posted by FoM on September 09, 2000 at 13:00:58 PT
By Dan Gardner, The Ottawa Citizen
Source: Ottawa Citizen
Although Ronald Reagan is often credited with coining the phrase "War on Drugs," the honour goes to Richard Milhous Nixon. As the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1968, Nixon looked for an issue that would resonate with middle-class America's fear of the rising counter-culture. Illegal drug use fit the bill. The phrase "War on Drugs" was not only catchy, it contrasted nicely with President Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty." There was little action in Nixon's drug war until 1971, when rising crime and the search for a re-election issue prompted a furious anti-drug campaign. Nixon called drugs the "No. 1 public enemy." 
He claimed "heroin addicts steal more than $2 billion worth of property to support their habit" -- despite the fact that the total value of all property stolen in the United States that year was $1.3 billion. He insisted "drugs are decimating a generation of Americans" -- even though far more Americans died that year falling down stairs than from illegal drug use. But Nixon's campaign bore fruit. In 1971, almost one-quarter of Americans agreed that drugs were the most serious problem facing the United States, up from three per cent in 1968. In 1973, a new anti-drug super-agency was created: the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The U.S. federal anti-drug budget rose from $43 million in 1971 to $321 million in 1975. President Jimmy Carter initially supported the decriminalization of marijuana but reversed himself and declared a "War on Marijuana." In 1979, drug use hit an all-time high. Cocaine, which had been little known when Nixon launched the war on drugs, became the most popular illegal drug after marijuana. Ronald Reagan re-invigorated the term "War on Drugs" and backed up his rhetoric with dollars. By the time he left office in 1988, the federal anti-drug budget had quadrupled. Also in 1988, crack cocaine use exploded. Fighting over control of the illegal trade helped push the murder rate to a record high. In the 1990s, the term "War on Drugs" has fallen out of favour. Bill Clinton does not use it, preferring instead a more moderate rhetorical tone that emphasizes the need for reducing drug demand and treatment. The phrase now commonly used is "a balanced approach." Under Bill Clinton, the federal anti-drug budget has grown 60 per cent -- to almost $20 billion. There are now 460,000 Americans imprisoned for drug offences -- almost the size of the entire U.S. prison population in 1980. The United States (population 270 million) now imprisons 100,000 more people for drug offences than the European Union (population 370 million) imprisons for all offences. Since casual drug use in the United States hit its peak in 1979, it has fallen substantially -- to a level that is still vastly higher than when Richard Nixon began his "War on Drugs" in earnest. The rate of heavy drug use is roughly the same as it was in 1979. The number of drug-related deaths has more than doubled since 1979, and is now at an all-time high. You can read this series at: September 5, 2000Source: Ottawa Citizen (CN ON)Copyright: 2000 The Ottawa CitizenContact: letters Address: 1101 Baxter Rd.,Ottawa, Ontario, K2C 3M4Fax: 613-596-8522Website: Articles:Why Borders Don't Stop Illegal Drugs Trade Rots Away Mexican Society Long As There Is Demand, There Will Be Supply The War On Drugs Has Failed
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Comment #11 posted by shawn on February 19, 2001 at 14:45:16 PT:
reefer props and first few lines
sorry its a little cut up, but i couldn't post it all at onceREEFER MADNESSDirected by Louis Gasnier, Produced by  George A. Hirliman, Screenplay by Arthur  Hoerl, Story by Lawrence Meade,  Additional Dialogue by Paul Franklin,  Cinematography: Jack Greenhalgh, With  Dorothy Short, Kenneth Craig, Lillian  Miles, Dave O'Brien, Thelma WhiteREEFER MADNESS  G&H Productions  U.S. o 1936 o 66 Min o B&W o $19.95  The film opens with a brief introduction that basically states (in printed words across the screen) that the film is fictional and any similarity to any actual person or event is purely coincidental. The film also states that it was formerly titled "Tell Your Children". The film then shows a printed foreward, which rolls down the screen at a slow pace. The forward is reprinted here in its entirety.   The motion picture you are about to witness may startle you. It would not have been possible, otherwise, to sufficiently emphasize the frightful toll of the new drug menace which is destroying the youth of America in alarmingly increasing numbers.  Marihuana is that drug -a violent narcotic -an unspeakable scourge -The Real Public Enemy Number One!  Its first effect is sudden, violent, uncontrollable laughter; then comes dangerous hallucinations -space expands -time slows down, almost stands still…. fixed ideals come next, conjuring up monstrous extravagances -followed by emotional disturbances, the total inability to direct thoughts, the loss of all power to resist physical emotions… leading finally to acts of shocking violence…. ending often in incurable insanity.   In picturing its soul destroying effects no attempt was made to equivocate, the scene and incidents, while fictionalized for the purposes of this story, are based upon actual research into the results of marihuana addiction. If their stark reality will make you think, will make you aware that something must be done to wipe out this ghastly menace, then the picture will not have failed in its purpose.  Because the dread marihuana may be reaching forth next for your son or daughter…. or yours…. or YOURS.
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Comment #10 posted by shawn on February 19, 2001 at 14:41:55 PT:
Jack pulls his pistol from his jacket and attempts to pistol-whip Bill. Ralph has apparently been knocked unconscious during his fight with Bill (he is laying on the couch, unmoving). Bill and Jack are now fighting for the pistol, the pistol fires, and the bullet hits Mary. Jack then knocks Bill unconscious with the gun. While, Bill is unconscious they (Blanch, Ralph, and Jack) discover that Mary is dead. Jack then wipes his pistol with a cloth, puts it in Bill's hand, and wakes Bill up. Jack then shows Bill Mary's body and Bill drops the pistol and says, "Mary, Mary, … what happened?" Jack says, "You killed her." Jack then tells May to lie to the cops and leaves. May tells the police that the kids came up for a beer, she went into the kitchen, and then heard the shot.  The scene changes to Joe's Place where Jack is telling Jimmy that the Police found out about the hit & run and he then tells Jimmy not to tell anyone that he was ever in May's apartment.   A newspaper headline flashes on the screen and reads, "Harper marihuana slaying trial begins."  The scene is now a courtroom where Dr. Carol is testifying about Bill's behavior. Dr. Carol states that Bill's unusual behavior could have been caused by the use of marihuana. He supports this by talking about Bill's problems in school (both academic and athletic), he also states that Bill broke into "hysterical laughter" during a serious discussion.  The scene is now an apartment where Ralph, May, and Blanch are hiding out until after the trial. Ralph and Blanch are arguing about the murder and Ralph is very irritable and acting crazy. May and Jack are in another room of the apartment discussing Ralph, because they are worried about him "spilling all he knows" about the murders.   Jack is now in the Boss's office telling the Boss that he thinks Ralph will crack and talk about the murder. Boss responds to this by suggesting that Ralph never here the verdict from the trial (which suggest that Ralph be murdered before the trial is over).  The scene is the courtroom and the prosecutor is arguing against the defense's argument that Bill was "momentarily insane" while under the influence of marihuana. The jury then adjourns to decide on a verdict. The scene is now the jury room where the jurors are debating the verdict. They suggest that Bill be made an example of, so that others do not use insanity as a defense. The jury then returns to the courtroom and returns a verdict of guilty on the charge of murder.  The scene is now the apartment where Ralph, Blanch, and May are staying. Ralph says to May, "Bring me some reefers." Ralph begins to smoke, starts laughing, and acting crazy. Ralph, then says, "We can't let that kid hang" and starts asking to see Jack. Blanch is at the piano and plays for Ralph while they smoke more marihuana. Jack comes into the apartment and Ralph throws down his marihuana cigarette. Ralph thinks that Jack wants to kill him and hits Jack with a stick (of some kind) as Jack is reaching into his inside jacket pocket. Ralph repeatedly hits Jack with the stick as Blanch sits at the piano and laughs (at times though she seems to be crying). The police arrive on the scene (after being called by a neighbor) and arrest May, Ralph, and Blanch. The scene then flashes to a police interrogation room where Blanch confesses everything to the police.  The scene is now a police raid on the Boss's business. This is followed by another newspaper headline, which reads, "Gang leader captured."   The scene is now the judge's chamber where Blanch is attempting to bargain with the judge to reduce her charges. Blanch tells the judge of the events that led up to Mary's death. The judge then frees Bill and clears him of the murder charge. As Blanch is leaving the judge's chambers she relives the events (of Mary's murder) in her mind and suddenly runs to a window and leaps out, killing herself.  The scene changes to the courtroom where the judge is telling Bill that he hope's Bill's experiences will help keep him and other from "the vicious pitfalls of marihuana." The scene now is Ralph's trial fro murdering Jack. The prosecution and the defense both agree that Ralph "is hopelessly and incurably insane" as "the result of marihuana, to which he was addicted." While this is being related to us several images of Ralph are flashed on the screen (he looks crazy in these images).  The scene now returns to Dr. Carol addressing the parent school organization. He tells the audience that we must remember that these previously mentioned events happened here. He then states, "We must work untiringly so that our children are obliged to learn the truth, because it is only through knowledge that we can safely protect them. Failing, this the next tragedy may be that of your daughter, or your son, or yours, or yours, or yours (the last yours punctuated by Dr. Carol pointing directly at the camera)."  The phrase "Tell your children" is then put on the screen shortly followed by "the end".the first few lines are in the next message
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Comment #9 posted by shawn on February 19, 2001 at 14:40:54 PT:
reefer con't
  The scene changes to Jimmy and Jack in the car (the car belongs to Mary, Jimmy's sister). The car stops in front of a storefront, jimmy asks Jack for a cigarette (marijuana of course) to smoke while Jack goes in to the store to get more marijuana. Jack gets out of the car, gives Jimmy a cigarette and goes inside. While Jack is inside Jimmy smokes the marijuana cigarette. The scene changes to the inside of the store, it appears to be an office. One man (the Boss) sits at a table with an adding machine and a telephone. Jack tells the Boss that he needs more cigarettes; the Boss makes a call on the telephone to give the order to someone else so that Jack's cigarettes are prepared. Another man enters the office and begins to complain about having to sell marihuana to kids. The Boss in response to this tells him, "If you want out, you can be retried permanently." The Boss then tells Jack that his order is probably ready and to go pick it up. Jack leaves and the scene returns to the car and Jimmy. Jimmy (who apparently is very intoxicated from the marihuana drives back to May's apartment. Jimmy is driving very fast and reckless (Jack repeatedly tells him to slow down). Jimmy hits a man crossing the street and does not stop.   The next scene is Dr. Carol, in an office of the Federal Bureau of Investigations with an FBI employee behind a desk (it is not directly stated who this person is). Dr. Carol is telling the FBI man about an "organized gang distributing narcotics to students." The FBI man's response to this is that the only "sure cure" is an educational campaign. The FBI man then tells Dr. Carol of the increase in marihuana reports from 1930 to 1936. He then goes on to cite several examples of these marihuana reports. These examples were as follows: "A 16 year old lad committing a holdup, he was a marihuana addict", "a young boy addicted to marihuana murdered his entire family with an axe", "a 17 year old girl was in the company of five men from a narcotic ring", "another case from West Virginia", and 100s more every day.  The scene changes to Dr. Carol talking to Bill in an office. Dr. Carol is asking Bill about his poor performance in school and the cause of it. During this interchange Bill lies to Dr. Carol about his use of marijuana.  The scene changes to May's apartment. Everyone is partying, smoking, and laughing, except Jack and May who are arguing about the "kids" getting high in the apartment. Bill is at the piano in May's apartment and everyone's smoking while he plays (he no longer looks like a wholesome boy, his hair and eyes are wild, he looks rather unkempt, and he's not as polite as he was earlier in the film). Ralph is in a chair smoking and laughing hysterically. Bill and Blanch go to the back room to make-out or have sex (sex seems more likely), they are both high on marihuana and are laughing hysterically.The scene changes to Mary and Jimmy's house where the police are checking out her car in a hit and run investigation. Mary lies to the police about Jimmy driving her car and then leaves to find Jimmy. Mary soon finds her way to May's apartment and is waiting for Jimmy. While she is waiting Mary smokes a marihuana cigarette with Ralph and they begin laughing hysterically. Ralph then attacks Mary, a sexual assault (he is kissing her and tearing her clothes off, while she yells no and stop repeatedly). Bill emerges from the back room and appears to be hallucinating. When he sees Ralph and Mary he becomes violent and attacks Ralph. Jack hears the commotion of the fight and runs into the room. 
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Comment #8 posted by shawn on February 19, 2001 at 14:39:40 PT:
reefer con't
Marihuana is that drug -a violent narcotic -an unspeakable scourge -The Real Public Enemy Number One!  Its first effect is sudden, violent, uncontrollable laughter; then comes dangerous hallucinations -space expands -time slows down, almost stands still…. fixed ideals come next, conjuring up monstrous extravagances -followed by emotional disturbances, the total inability to direct thoughts, the loss of all power to resist physical emotions… leading finally to acts of shocking violence…. ending often in incurable insanity.   In picturing its soul destroying effects no attempt was made to equivocate, the scene and incidents, while fictionalized for the purposes of this story, are based upon actual research into the results of marihuana addiction. If their stark reality will make you think, will make you aware that something must be done to wipe out this ghastly menace, then the picture will not have failed in its purpose.  Because the dread marihuana may be reaching forth next for your son or daughter…. or yours…. or YOURS.  A background of newspaper presses now appears on the screen. A newspaper (with readable headlines) spirals onto the screen and pauses long enough to be read. This newspaper is quickly replaced by another newspaper headline. A total of five newspapers with different headlines appear on the screen. The five headlines are "Police wage war on narcotic ring", "Police raid marihuana flat", Dope peddlers caught in high school", Federals aid police in drug war", and "School parent organizations join dope fight". This scene also ends with a newspaper ad displaying the time and place for a school parent organization meeting to discuss marihuana.  The scene is now a school parent organization meeting. A man in a suit (who is later identified as Dr. Carol, principle of Lakeside High School) is addressing the meeting's attendants. Dr. Carol is speaking to the audience about the dangers of marihuana and how their (the audience member's) help is needed to "stamp out this frightful assassin of our youth". Dr. Carol tells the audience that "compulsory education on narcotics in general, but dread marihuana in particular" is necessary to combat this "scourge" on our youth. Dr. Carol states that narcotics (marihuana) are responsible for "lawlessness in every city and hamlet". He goes on to read from a letter, which is from the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. This letter states, "The suppression of marihuana is the most important job of the narcotic bureau". Dr. Carol then tells the audience that, "school parent organizations will be invaluable in stamping out this scourge."  Dr. Carol now tells the audience of marihuana that was found growing in Brooklyn that "was being sold in high schools and government Army posts around New York". He also refers to marihuana as "the deadly narcotic". Dr. Carol begins to talk about how the other types of narcotics (opium, cocaine, & heroin are mentioned) are smuggled into the country. While he is speaking, the film shows these various smuggling techniques and also shows confiscated narcotics being burned in an incinerator. Dr. Carol then states, "And more vicious, more deadly, even than these soul destroying drugs is the menace of marihuana."  Dr. Carol now speaks of how the audience members may not believe that the things he has said are true or that they could happen to them or that he has exaggerated the facts. He then tells the audience of an example that happened "right here in our city, in an apartment near one of our local high schools." This is where the film segues from the meeting room to that apartment near a high school. Dr. Carol remains as the narrator, but his example is now the main subject of the film.  May Coleman is the young lady that runs the apartment. The scene opens with May and Jack Perry (the marihuana peddler) talking in the apartment. May is arguing against having "kids" coming to the apartment to get "high". Jack basically ignores her. Jack leaves to answer the doorbell and May gets dressed. Jack lets in 2 men and 1 woman (Ralph, ?, and Blanch). May and Jack continue to discuss "kids" in the apartment. Jack leaves and the scene switches to a soda shop (Joe's Place) with a piano player. Various boys and girls are dancing and drinking soda. The piano player (who often makes odd faces at the camera) stops paying and steps into a closet and smokes a marihuana cigarette. While he's smoking, he looks around in a paranoid manner and smiles a lot). Jack is at the soda shop and  The scene now changes to two very wholesome kids (Bill & Mary) doing schoolwork. Mary's mother comes in and talks to the kids and then Bill leaves. Bill returns to his very wholesome family (scene switches to Bill's house with his mother, father, and brother) and they talk. I believe that this scene is included to show how good and wholesome Bill and Mary were before they used marihuana, but this is only speculation.  The scene changes to Joe's Place where Bill, Jimmy, Ralph, and Blanch are having soda and talking. They soon decide to got to May's Apartment. The scene shows everyone dancing, smoking, and laughing in the apartment. May tells Jack that they are running out of marihuana cigarettes, and Jack asks Jimmy to drive him to pick up some more. Jimmy and Jack leave and May delivers marihuana cigarettes to everyone in the room. Everyone begins smoking and they break into fits of laughter.
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Comment #7 posted by shawn on February 19, 2001 at 14:38:28 PT:
reefer madness
    ok, i really don't have time to wrtie a great deal--- so here's a copy/paste of a Reefer Madness summary(pretty detailed though)any way... my name is shawn and i'm in the process of finishing my master's degree (communications) and my thesis is a rhetorical analyisis of the anti-marijuana rhetorical campaign in the US (1937-2000) and Reefer Madness is a founding piece of that campaign (not so much as Anslinger's Marihuana Assassin of Youth (American Magazine 1937)i've pretty much got the early eras wrapped up, but I NEEDA FEW VITAL PIECES FROM THE 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s(TV commercials, Newspaper ads, and drug education aids- manuals, pamphlets, ...etc)any help would be appreciatedthanx(i've got an analysis of this madness also)shawn
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Comment #6 posted by observer on September 10, 2000 at 07:58:43 PT
The 'DRUG WAR' Propaganda Slogan
No problem, dddd. On and off for the last several months, I've been transcribing that movie.(Tell Your Children aka Reefer Madness ) I've got about 1/3 of it done so far. (Lots of my typos in it now, naturally. Looking for the script as text on the net but so far not found.) Really interesting stuff, as you can see from that little "forward" there. There is a montage of "newspaper headline" images at the start of the movie, which tries to convey a mounting sense of urgency and crisis because of the "dread marihuana". One of those screaming newspaper headlines contains the words, shown only for a fraction of a second, "DRUG WAR". That movie was made in 1936*.The movie Reefer Madness is rich with other semi-subliminals like that by the way. I'm trying to note each one in the transcript as I encounter it. ____* Madacy Entertainment Group distributes a copy of R.M. that lists 1936; crrh's site says 1938 is the production date of this movie. says 1937. Reefer Madness
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Comment #5 posted by dddd on September 10, 2000 at 05:12:59 PT
 Thanx again Observer for the chilling reminder of the origins. Frank,,I appreciate your comment,and I agree with all you said,except for one thing;"It’s time to slap the “Drug Warriors” in the face for this quiet holocaust. " A slap,would perhaps be the gentlemanly and civil gesture to register ones disdain for the "drug warriors",improper,,cruel,,vicious,evil,criminal,dishonourable,and dispicable abuse of democracy,,,,etc,,,,But I like the idea of the Forrest Gump-esque justice concept. It says;"Wrong is as wrong does",,,and for the small number of the worst federal war criminals,who have ignored the basics of justice,and lied,cheated,and stolen from the people,,,,they should be judged,as they judged. "Life is like a jail full of Barrys'"....These drug war criminals,should have DOUBLE mandatory minimums. I doubt any of this will happen soon though,so do what I do,,,continue to try and pretend you're normal.JAH be with you all..always.............dddd 
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Comment #4 posted by Frank on September 09, 2000 at 21:28:50 PT
30 Years of Failure
I served in Vietnam under President Nixon. I can assure you that Mr. Nixon was one of the most corrupt and double dealing Presidents America ever had. All the “War on Drugs” was a political diversion; however, it now has become “Law Enforcement’s” form of profit sharing or their “Cash Cow”. The politicians who support this “War” are morally wrong and spiritually bankrupt. It’s time that America stood up to this monster. Putting our children in prison is Not the answer. It’s time to slap the “Drug Warriors” in the face for this quiet holocaust.  
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Comment #3 posted by observer on September 09, 2000 at 18:45:18 PT
Public Enemy Number One! Shock! Alarm!
Nixon called drugs the "No.1 public enemy." Gee ... where'd here ever get that?FORWARD:The motion picture you are about to witness may startle you .It would not have beenpossible otherwise, tosufficiently emphasizethe frightful toll of thenew drug menace whichis destroying the youthof America in alarminglyincreasing numbers.marihuana is that drug-- a violent narcotic --an unspeakable scourge-- The Real Public Enemy Number One !Its first effect is suddenviolent, uncontrollablelaughter, then come dangeroushallucinations -- spaceexpands -- time slows down,almost stands still ....fixed ideas come next, conjuring up monstrous extravagances-- followed by emotionaldisturbances, the totalinability to direct thoughts,the loss of all power to resist physical emotionsleading finally to acts ofshocking violence ... endingoften in incurable insanity.In picturing its soul-destroying effects noattempt was made toequivocate. The scenes andincidents, while fictionizedfor the purposes of thisstory, are based upon actualresearch into the resultsof Marihuana addiction.If their start reality willmake you think, will make you aware that something must be done towipe out this ghastlymenace, then the picturewill not have failed in itspurpose.Because the dread Marihuanamay be reaching forth nextfor your son or daughter...or yours ... or YOURS!-- Forward to Reefer Madness (1938)
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Comment #2 posted by Ethan Russo, MD on September 09, 2000 at 16:21:46 PT:
Tricky Dick
Too bad that Nixon didn't choose cannabis instead of Dilantin as his preferred drug.
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Comment #1 posted by MikeEEEEE on September 09, 2000 at 15:42:54 PT
All this suffering had to start somewhere, and to believe my parents voted for Nixon, what a kick in the ass.
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