Cannabis for Fuel 

  Cannabis for Fuel 

Posted by CN Staff on April 18, 2004 at 23:28:09 PT
By Pamela Sossi  
Source: Frontiers of Freedom  

Fossil fuels are the United States primary source of all energy. Today, over 90% of all the energy used in the Untited States comes from the burning of fossil fuels. The side affects of the U.S.'s over use of these fuels has created numerous life time environmental consequences. With the burning of fossil fuels, harmful chemicals like sulfor and carbon dioxide are released into our atmosphere, thus creating global warming, and acid rain. A solution is in site, but government officials, and leaders choose to ignore one of the most economical ways of protecting this planet.
In 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act was passed, which banned the recreational, and medical use of cannabis. I believe that this current policy is wrong for America, because the cannabis plant could be our solution to a clean and safe place to live. As most people know, there are a limited supply of these fossil fuels that we burn, and one day that supply is going to run completely dry. Our government needs to start thinking, and preparing for the future of its citizens. We must start taking control of this world, and not let it dwindle into despair, because if we do let our earth go, what are we left with?The reason why the cannabis plant is our solution to a virtually pollutant tree atmosphere is because of the plants high level of cellulose content, which can be made into ethanol, and methanol fuels. These fuels allow for a more complete combustion of hydrocarbons, providing a higher, lead free octane than the gas currently being used, and with less carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. This is possible because of the biomass that the cannabis plant biologically produces. This biomass can be converted into virtually any sort of energy, and it is estimated that 90% of all energy produced by the use of fossil fuels could instead be produced from cannabis biomass. The cannabis biomass conversion to fuel and gasoline is at a fraction of the cost of oil, coal, or nuclear energy, so with saving our environment we also get to save money.The cannabis plant when burned and released into the atmosphere only releases carbon dioxide absorbed during its growing season, which is just a few months. While, the burning of fossil fuels, releases carbon dioxide from millions of years ago, when the earth's atmosphere was very different from todays. Also, it is important to note that the cannabis plant produces enought oxygen throughout its growing season to counterbalance all the carbon dioxide it will later put into the atmosphere when burned as fuel.Before the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, Henry Ford utilized hemp fuel for cars, and his first Model T was designed to run ona methanol petrol, produced from hemp seeds. Before 1937, race cars, military vehicles, U.S. farmers, and auto drivers used a methanol based fuel.I think that America needs to stop being ignorant to the fact that there is a conceivable way in which we can save this planet. The cannabis plant should be used, because it doesn't release dangerous amounts of chemical smoke into the atmosphere, like fossil fuels do. I believe that the cannabis plant ought to be America's answer to how and why to break the oil ties to the Middle East. The FCDA have produced their biomass equation, and it shows that cannabis biomass is the most effective and potentially cheapest and most reliabe ways to produce energy. We should be running cars on hemp oil, and utilizing the 50,000 commercial uses of the cannabis plant.My proposal is to take advantage of an effortlessy grown crop, and use it to the nations benefit. America should construct vehicles made of hemp fiber, that run on methanol gas. We need to be a smart country, and recognize that we are taking advantage of this world. As human beings, we do not own this earth, we are merely inhabitants of it. As a country, we should respect this vast territory and take care of it, and this starts with finding alternative ways of producing energy. I believe that my policy, to utilize the Cannabis plant's benefits, is better than continuing to burn fossil fuels, coal, and oil, because it is clearly more environmentally friendly, it will save the government money, and it will also save money for United States citizens. Today, there are so many different types of pollution ou there, so why shouldn't we take advantage of an inexpensive, easily grown plant that omits virtually no pollution into the atmosphere? The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937: Frontiers of Freedom (VA)Author: Pamela Sossi Published: April 19, 2004Copyright: 2004 Frontiers of Freedom Contact: info Website: - Henry Ford Hemp Archives

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Comment #8 posted by ekim on April 19, 2004 at 19:50:54 PT

Shell oil over stated oil amounts
what will it take to get funding for Cannabis Fuel.This months issue of Metropolitan Home Design 100 has as the 100 design item is the Ford Model U and enlightened SUV powered by the worlds first supercharged hydrogen internal combustion engine, plus it will feature corn-based tires, soy-based body panels, sunflower-seed-based oilDam is it any more clear that the market is now sayen that the time is right to bring in the vegies as the old oil is geten to costly. in tax money in lives lost fighting for it now Dutch Shell over stating reserves, what other oil is doing the same. Who is protecting the USA with a back up plan. Kerry talks about alt fuel and power when will he start naming names as to who he will be bringing with him. Ralph Nader should be heading up the renewable team for Kerry.
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Comment #7 posted by Virgil on April 19, 2004 at 13:50:32 PT

A new one for you
There are several things I am searching. Inflamation is the big deal now and I have not had time to read the big story in Time. B17 and its controvery could shed some light on CP because one side says it is a cancer killer and the government says it is not even a vitamin. But the other issue I would like to know more about is water in the body.John Turmel wrote commentary about a book concerning the issue of water in the body that said many diseases could be prevented if people drink enough water. Here again one side says beer, cola, coffee or any fluid will do while the book says water means water. The issue concerning cannabis has to do with the demonizers throwing dry mouth as a reason for prohibition that was discussed in the comments several months ago. Now in the book that author says that when there is a shortage of water in the body, the body goes to priority mode. What I wonder is if dry mouth comes about because cannabis causes a realignment of priorities that leads to the dry mouth that is also a signal that you were already to low on fluid.
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Comment #6 posted by E_Johnson on April 19, 2004 at 13:34:40 PT

So exercise increases cannabinoids and as a result:1. The person becomes resistant to the pain and stress of exercise.2. The person becomes relaxed by the exercise.3. The person feels high from the exercise.4. The person feels appropriately hungry after the exercise.What a nice arrangement that is!
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Comment #5 posted by FoM on April 19, 2004 at 08:17:35 PT

I think you're right and Dr. Russo is out of the country. I worry about him with the world situation as bad as it is. We're lucky to have him.
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Comment #4 posted by jose melendez on April 19, 2004 at 08:11:56 PT

I think Ethan is out of the country . . .Do these help?from: endocannabinoids are involved in maintaining food intake.Di Marzo V, Goparaju SK, Wang L, Liu J, Batkai S, Jarai Z, Fezza F, Miura GI, Palmiter RD, Sugiura T, Kunos G.Endocannabinoid Research Group, Istituto per la Chimica di Molecole di Interesse Biologico, CNR, 80072, Arco Felice, Naples, Italy.Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y. Genetic defects in anorexigenic signalling, such as mutations in the melanocortin-4 (ref. 5) or leptin receptors, cause obesity. However, alternative orexigenic pathways maintain food intake in mice deficient in neuropeptide Y. CB1 cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol are present in the hypothalamus, and marijuana and anandamide stimulate food intake. Here we show that following temporary food restriction, CB1 receptor knockout mice eat less than their wild-type littermates, and the CB1 antagonist SR141716A reduces food intake in wild-type but not knockout mice. Furthermore, defective leptin signalling is associated with elevated hypothalamic, but not cerebellar, levels of endocannabinoids in obese db/db and ob/ob mice and Zucker rats. Acute leptin treatment of normal rats and ob/ob mice reduces anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol in the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus may tonically activate CB1 receptors to maintain food intake and form part of the neural circuitry regulated by leptin.PMID: 11298451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]see also:, from: Epidemiological data on the diffusion of dependenceSwift, Hall and Copeland quite rightly complain about the paucity of data on the natural history of the use and abuse of cannabis, especially when compared to the knowledge about alcohol (3).In Australia the association between early initiation and continued use during adulthood seems to be confirmed, even though the frequency of consumption normally drops after the age of 30, when people adjust to their new roles of husband and father. Generally, when cohorts of consumers were perspectively followed, factors relating to both risk and protection were given greater relevance than frequency of use. The 18-year-olds that were classified as being cannabis dependent according to the DSM-III-R classification continued to be so at the age of 20.Kandell (4), on the basis of North American epidemiological data, indicated the following ranking for continued use: nicotine (0.45), alcohol (0.32), and cannabis (0.25). This means that 1 out of 4 persons could be classified as being addicted to cannabis at the level of consumption during a whole life.The already cited Swift followed a group of 200 chronic cannabis addicts for a year in Sydney. The group was enrolled using newspaper announcements and by word of mouth. They had all used the drug at least once a week for 5 years, in the cases of men, and for 3 years in the cases of women. Although there was a slight drop out, the majority of those that were interviewed the first time were contacted again after a year. During the interviews, the items of ICD-10 of the University of Michingam (UM.CIDI) were applied, which estimates the probability of addiction during the next 12 months and is based on 9 items with item 3 as a minimum and item 7 as a maximum. (The most important items are: a) strong urge to smoke; b) difficulty in controlling its use; c) other important things are neglected; d) tolerance, e) continued use despite the presence of physical or psychological problems, f) withdrawal symptoms.) The average score was 3.6 for the first interview and 3.2 after a year. A continued use of the drug was noted, but also a certain flexibility in its use as well as attempts to stop the habit without any help. One-fifth of the sample reduced the administration of the drug somewhat, and, generally speaking, the dependence seemed to be prevalently of a psychological nature.It is interesting to note the results of a Germany study (5) carried out on 1,228 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 living in Munich, and with an average follow up after 19.7 months. Ascertainment of drug addiction was realized using the same UM-CIDI system, but also taking into account DSM-IV. The results confirmed that, among the more frequent consumers, high levels of consumption persist over time. Therefore, only a slight proportion of the sample dropped the habit or reduced their intake to a significant extent, while the administration of other psychoactive substances and alcohol was common.The Report of the Institute of Medicine (IOM-6) published in March 1999 responded to a series of queries on the safety and effectiveness of the medical use of marijuana, by analyzing a huge amount of epidemiological and scientific data. Although the report underlines the possible toxic effects that might be produced by smoking this drug, it indicates that the likelihood of addiction is minimal. Above all, the report disproves the assumption that cannabis abuse represents the first step towards the abuse of narcotic drugs, cocaine and other substances, and observes that, if anything, this passage is favored by the illegal system used to provide the drug.However, there is not a lack of indications regarding the presence of withdrawal symptoms. At the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Vermont (7), a checklist containing 22 items (the Marijuana Withdrawal Symptoms based on the most frequent symptoms) was utilized on 42 subjects who were considered abstinent "marijuana addicts". The majority of them (57%) reported 6 averagely serious symptoms; while 43% reported more than 4 symptoms considered "serious". The picture was more serious among those presenting psychiatric symptoms and who frequently used cannabis. All of these symptoms confirm the results of experiments carried out on animals as well the results of interviews.5) Neurobiological elements of cannabisIt might be opportune to provide an in-depth description of neurobiological elements of cannabis. During the 61st meeting of the College on Dependence (Acapulco, 12-17 June 1999) (8) a symposium was dedicated to problems relating to cannabinoid receptors and their antagonists. As Heishman of the National Institute of Mental Health of Bethesda recalls, the first delta-9-THC receptor, which was identified first in mice and then in human beings, was CP-55-940 which belongs to family of receptors coupled with the G protein, and which are situated in the basal ganglion, in the cerebellum and in the cortex.Later on, a second CB2 receptor situated in the periphery was isolated and clonated. Research led to the identification of an endogenous ligand called anandamide, which is a derivative of arachidonic acid. Anandamide ties itself to the cannabinoid receptors and produces the same effects as delta-9-THC. Then, in 1994, the CB1 (SR 141716) and CB2 (SR 144528) receptors were identified.The quantity and the distribution of the cannabinoid receptors at the cerebral level can be compared to those of the glutamate receptors. Their presence in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellum might explain the effects of cannabis on the motor system, while those on the hippocampus would justify its effects on the memory. It is interesting to highlight, from the evolutionary point of view, how all the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids are mediated by a single linking site. In fact, cannabinoid receptors have been found in a prehistoric animal, the hydra.The SR 141716 antagonist reduces dopaminergic activities (in the animal) and improves short-term memory, so much so that it has been proposed as a form of treatment for Parkinson’s Disease and for memory disturbances. Agonists, instead, can produce anti-emetic effects on the hyperkinesia, on chronic pain and on some self-immunity diseases. There is debate as to whether SR 14716A, which interacts with the CB1 receptors, is a real antagonist or an inverse agonist. In effect, it is lipofile and therefore falls with the cannabinoid category.It should be highlighted that the name "anandamide" derives from Sanskrit and means "internal bliss". According to Wiley (9) it is not easy to identify the mechanism of this bliss.Unlike the classical protocols for cannabinoids and above all for delta-9-THC, it is not possible to realize self-administrations during experiments on animals, and therefore greater attention is given to the identification of discriminations. In animals, the selective effects of cannabinoids allow to confirm their action at the level of CB1 receptors. However, the role of endogenous cannabinoids in producing intoxication from cannabis is not very clear. Anandamide does not completely replace delta-9-THC, except in doses that reduce the level of response. In particular, attempts to provoke a discrimination between anandamide (or SR 141716A) and delta-9-THC in animals have not proved successful. In any case, it was possible – by using other similar compounds – to demonstrate that the discriminatory differences between delta-9-THC and compounds similar to anandamide are not completely independent from pharmacokinetic factors. Thus, it is still not clear what mechanism causes this "internal bliss".Nevertheless, the significant amount of experimental research carried out on animals has led to research into which mechanisms activate central reinforcement in human beings. According to previous studies, both the dopaminergic and opioid systems are involved. 
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Comment #3 posted by E_Johnson on April 19, 2004 at 07:14:49 PT

Calling Dr. Russo, calling Dr. Russo article saying that people should eat carbs 30 min after a big workout or risk fatigue and muscle weakness --The mass media has forgotten by now that a hard workout will flood the brain and body with cannabinoids.Wouldn't people normally be getting the munchies after a big workout? Is this one of the ways that cannabinoids protect the body -- by stimulating hunger after exercise?
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Comment #2 posted by MikeEEEEE on April 19, 2004 at 07:06:36 PT

The forces against hemp -- related story
If you thought it wasn't about the oil.Saudi Envoy Promised Bush a Drop in Oil Prices Ahead of Election
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Comment #1 posted by mayan on April 19, 2004 at 02:57:04 PT

Hemp = Hope
Hemp is our only hope.SHADOW OF THE SWASTIKA: The Real Reason the Government Won't Debate Medical Cannabis and Industrial Hemp Re-legalization: supports the drug war is supporting terrorism...Record poppy crop makes mockery of Afghanistan's 'jihad' on opium: ready...Rice: U.S. Bracing for Terror Before Polls: way out is the way in...The Fatal Flaw In The 9/11 Coverup - Why can no one name the hijackers or prove they flew the planes? Engineers Help the USA - What happenned on 9/11?
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