|U.S. Bullies World Into Waging Futile Drug War|
Posted by FoM on January 07, 2001 at 08:19:31 PT|
By Dan Gardner, Ottawa Citizen
Source: Chicago Sun-Times
On June 6, 1998, a surprising letter was delivered to Kofi Annan, secretary-general of the United Nations. "We believe," the letter declared, "that the global war on drugs is now causing more harm than drug abuse itself."
The letter was signed by statesmen, politicians, academics and other public figures. Former UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar signed. So did George Shultz, the former U.S. secretary of state, and Joycelyn Elders, the former U.S. surgeon general.
Nobel laureates such as Milton Friedman and Argentina's Adolfo Perez Esquivel added their names. Four former presidents and seven former Cabinet ministers from Latin American countries signed.
The drug policies the world has been following for decades are a destructive failure, they said. Trying to stamp out drug abuse by banning drugs has only created an illegal industry worth $400 billion, "or roughly 8 percent of international trade."
The letter continued: "This industry has empowered organized criminals, corrupted governments at all levels, eroded internal security, stimulated violence and distorted both economic markets and moral values." It concluded that these were the consequences "not of drug use per se, but of decades of failed and futile drug war policies."
This powerful statement landed on Annan's desk just as the UN was holding a special assembly on global drug problems. Going into that meeting, the governments of the world appeared all but unanimous in the belief that the best way to combat drug abuse was to ban the production, sale or possession of certain drugs.
Drug prohibition, most governments believe, makes harmful substances less available to people and far more expensive than they otherwise would be. Combined with the threat of punishment for using or selling drugs, prohibition significantly cuts the number of people using these substances, thus saving them from the torment of addiction and reducing the personal and social harms drugs can inflict. For these governments--and probably for most people in most countries--drug prohibition is just common sense.
Still, the letter to Annan showed that this view is far from unanimous. In fact, a large and growing number of world leaders and experts think the war on drugs is nothing less than a humanitarian disaster.
But governments are all but unanimous in supporting drug prohibition. It's not easy to imagine alternatives to a policy that has been in place for decades, especially when few people remember how the policy came into being in the first place, or why.
"War on drugs" is a compelling sound bite, whereas the damage drug prohibition may do is complex and impossible to summarize on a bumper sticker.
But the core reason the war on drugs so completely dominates the official policies of so many nations is simple: The United States insists on it.
`Turning the world dry' The "international" war on drugs is a policy conceived, created and enforced by the U.S. government. Originally, nations were cajoled, prodded or bullied into joining it. Then it became international orthodoxy, and today most national governments are enthusiastic supporters of prohibition. To the extent that they debate drug policy at all, it is only to question how strictly or harshly prohibition should be enforced, not whether the basic idea is sound.
The few officials and governments that do stray, even slightly, outside the prohibition orthodoxy are cajoled, manipulated or bullied to get back in. The U.S. government does everything it can to prevent the views of conscientious objectors from being heard.
Drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and opium are linked in modern minds to organized crime, street violence and junkies wasting away in crack dens. But they weren't always thought of this way.
These drugs were used for centuries before they were criminalized in the 20th century. Like alcohol today, they were produced, sold and purchased legally. And like alcohol, the producers and sellers of these drugs usually were ordinary merchants and companies that conducted their business according to the laws of the day. They fought for market share with advertisements and settled disputes with lawsuits, like any other business.
These legal markets for drugs clearly had their harms. As in every age and every society, a small minority of the people who used what are now illegal drugs became addicted and suffered. But the legal availability of what are now illegal drugs did not create burgeoning plagues of drug addiction any more than the legal availability of alcohol today has spawned an epidemic of alcoholism.
For many well-intentioned activists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that wasn't good enough. In the United States, where the puritan dream of building a morally righteous "City on the Hill" always has been a potent social force, anti-drug activism took its strongest hold.
The first goal was banning alcohol, but many in the American temperance movement had even grander designs. William Jennings Bryan, a former secretary of state and a pioneer in the push to ban alcohol and other drugs, insisted in 1919, when alcohol was about to be made illegal, that the United States must "export the gift of Prohibition to other countries, turning the whole world dry." In 1900, the Rev. W.S. Crafts, an official in the Theodore Roosevelt administration, had called for an even broader "international civilizing crusade against alcohol and drugs."
Most of the early crusaders genuinely believed a ban would end drug problems: Simply make drugs illegal, and no one would sell, buy or use them. As the American preacher Billy Sunday joyously proclaimed when the United States banned alcohol in 1920, "The reign of tears is over. The slums will soon be a memory. We will turn our prisons into factories and our jails into storehouses and corncribs. Men will walk upright now, women will smile, and children will laugh."
In 1920, when alcohol was banned in the United States, a rich and powerful criminal class emerged. And with it came a stupendous rise in violence and corruption. Gangsters protected themselves from the law by buying off officials. They fought for market share not with ads but guns.
And since they couldn't be sued or supervised by government regulators, gangsters and smugglers often provided alcohol that was adulterated or even poisonous, killing tens of thousands and leaving more blind or paralyzed.
These developments shocked Americans. Just 13 years after the Constitution had been amended to create Prohibition, it was changed again to legalize alcohol.
More than alcohol But other drugs, which had been banned only gradually with few apparent repercussions because of the vastly lower demand for them, were not legalized.
Instead, the energy of the American anti-alcohol campaign turned on them. Under the leadership of Harry Anslinger, Prohibition agent turned anti-narcotics chief, the American government expanded its bans on drugs at home and took up the "international civilizing crusade" with zeal.
The precedent for international drug prohibition had been set in conferences in 1909 and 1911. At the time, a few nations, notably Canada and Britain, were interested in international regulation of opium, but it was the United States that instigated these conferences and prodded the talks toward total criminal prohibition. Though delayed by the two world wars, such negotiations eventually led to a full ban.
"It was only in 1945 that the United States within the international community had the political clout to internationalize these ideas of prohibition," said David Bewley-Taylor, a professor at the University of Wales and author of The United States and International Drug Control, 1909-1997.
Several international protocols were signed in the 1940s and 1950s. The United States also worked behind the scenes to internationalize its prohibition efforts--sometimes using questionable pressure tactics.
Charles Siragusa, a U.S. narcotics agent during the early years of international drug prohibition, noted in his 1966 memoirs that foreign police "almost always worked willingly with us. It was their superiors in government who were sometimes unhappy that we had entered their countries. Most of the time, though, I found that a casual mention of the possibility of shutting off our foreign aid programs, dropped in the proper quarters, brought grudging permission for our operations almost immediately."
The use of foreign aid as leverage in expanding U.S. drug policies was occasionally made explicit. The 1984 National Drug Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking said that "U.S. decisions on foreign aid and other matters" should be "tied to the willingness of the recipient country to execute vigorous enforcement programs against narcotic traffickers."
It was not an idle threat. In 1980, the United States suspended most foreign aid to Bolivia when it deemed the Bolivian government unresponsive to American concerns about cocaine.
Major UN conventions on drugs passed in 1961, 1971 and 1988. These conventions, now the basic international laws of drug prohibition, all were initiated by the U.S. government. Today, almost every nation has signed the UN conventions.
Yet it's important to remember that international drug prohibition came together only gradually, in steps, over decades. Whether prohibition should be the basic method of dealing with drug problems never has been debated seriously at the international level.
American arm-twisting The object of American policy today is not only to have nations committed to its general approach of drug prohibition. As Charles Siragusa's memoirs show, the United States long has attempted to carry out its anti-drug activities in other countries and to have its favored policies and programs implemented abroad. It also has worked doggedly to block other countries from trying any drug policy not in line with its own strict-prohibition approach.
Formally, at least, the key instrument of American influence is the "certification" process. Acting under a 1986 directive from Congress, the president, through the State Department, each year reports on the level of cooperation and effort other nations are putting into anti-drug measures. Decertification can result in economic sanctions, international isolation, even an end to U.S. foreign aid.
For third-world countries, that would be a disaster. Not surprisingly, the U.S. report, which is released in March, is always preceded by a flurry of drug crackdowns and anti-drug initiatives in targeted nations. Mexicans call it the "February surprise."
These efforts to curry American favor are meant to avoid the fate of Colombia. Decertified in the mid-1990s, Colombia under President Ernesto Samper spun into political crisis even though the full force of U.S. economic sanctions wasn't used.
Colombia was forced to abandon other priorities and launch a furious attack on drug trafficking. Many experts feel it was that switch of priorities that weakened the central government, damaged the economy and, ultimately, allowed Colombia's rebels to seize 40 percent of the nation's territory. These developments in turn led to spectacular increases in drug production and even greater instability.
Heroin maintenance More disquieting than high-level American policies is the use of quiet pressure tactics. One such tactic was used in Australia in 1996.
For the most part, Australia has followed the orthodox drug policies favored by the United States, but high levels of heroin addiction, along with the threat of AIDS, have fostered a strong movement in Australia toward the so-called "harm-reduction" approach. This is the idea that the top goal of drug policy shouldn't necessarily be to reduce drug use but to reduce the harm done by drug use--even if that requires easing the ban on drug possession.
One harm-reduction policy is "heroin maintenance," in which serious heroin addicts who haven't been able to break their addiction are prescribed legal heroin. Heroin maintenance has been shown in some studies to lead to dramatic decreases in deaths by overdose and in crimes committed by addicts.
There have been equally dramatic increases in health and employment. With their lives in some semblance of order, addicts often are better able to reduce their drug use voluntarily and even kick their addiction.
Australia began considering a heroin maintenance trial project in the early 1990s. By 1996, it was a serious proposal being reviewed by several committees of health experts.
That year, President Clinton's top international drug enforcer, Bob Gelbard, flew to the Australian state of Tasmania. Officially, Gelbard went to inspect the state's opium poppy industry, an operation licensed by the UN to produce morphine and codeine for medical use. While in Tasmania, Gelbard invited the members of a state committee considering the heroin maintenance trial to speak with him.
Dr. David Pennington, a respected Australian expert on drugs and chairman of the committee meeting with the American, recalls that Gelbard was "very courteous" but emphatic that it would be a terrible mistake for Australia to deviate from "the straight, hard-line position." Pennington said Gelbard made it "clear that the State Department considered this issue an absolutely critical one."
Gelbard, he said, also mentioned Tasmania's opium poppy industry, worth $160 million per year. He "pointed out that Australia was allowed by [the UN] to have its poppy industry in Tasmania," Pennington said. And "if [the UN] were to decide that Australia were not a reliable country, that of course that industry could be at risk."
The American, Pennington said, avoided saying explicitly that an unwelcome decision would jeopardize the industry. "On the other hand, it was a very heavy hint."
Nonetheless, Pennington's committee recommended that the heroin trial go ahead. So did a federal committee made up of top health and police officials from across Australia. But in 1997, after heavy lobbying from the frightened poppy industry and the government of Tasmania, the Australian federal Cabinet rejected the advice of the expert committees. The Cabinet said it would "send the wrong message" about drug use.
The Citizen asked the State Department to comment on these events. A State Department official said it could not provide a response because several years had passed and the officials involved had changed employment. Gelbard, who is now the U.S. ambassador to Indonesia, declined to comment.
U.S. policies not criticized Oblique pressure tactics also have come into play in the critical drug-producing states of Latin America.
There is considerable opposition to drug prohibition in Latin America, as evidenced by the signatures of many Latin American presidents, ministers and other officials on the 1988 protest letter sent to Annan. Many Latin Americans feel the U.S.-led war on drugs has hurt their countries deeply, by creating powerful drug cartels that corrupt their governments, destabilize their economies and spread bloody mayhem in their streets.
Still, there is virtually no serious official opposition to U.S. policies. Senior Latin American officials often publicly criticize what they see as an exaggerated American emphasis on drug supply rather than on domestic drug demand. But they virtually never criticize the core policy of prohibition.
In part, this false unanimity stems from the old fears of losing American foreign aid and trade access. But another reason is hinted at in the 1998 protest letter itself: All of the senior government officials who signed were "the former president of Colombia," "the former president of Costa Rica," and so on. Only those whose careers are all but over seem willing to criticize the core idea behind American drug policy.
The Latin American elites who dominate their governments have close business, educational and social ties with the United States. For Colombia's elite, Miami is practically a second capital. To be refused a visa to the United States is to have careers, even social lives, crippled.
Monica de Greiff, a former Colombian justice minister, says it's even a blemish on one's name at home. "If you don't have a visa, people will say, `Um, why don't you have a visa? You must be doing something wrong if you don't have a visa,' " she said.
One of those who says he has felt the effects of this weapon is her father, Gustavo de Greiff. As Colombia's prosecutor general in the early 1990s, de Greiff was renowned in his own country and the United States for his success in hunting and prosecuting drug traffickers.
But at the height of this fame, he publicly declared the drug war to be futile and destructive. His formerly close relations with the United States immediately soured, he says. Not long after, the United States accused de Greiff of corruption. Ultimately, he lost his American visa.
The State Department denies that the United States retaliates against dissenting Latin American officials. In a written response to the Citizen, an official stated: "Our law provides that if we have persuasive evidence that somebody is complicit in the commission of a number of types of crimes, one of which is drug trafficking, he doesn't get a visa to enter the United States. This is never done because somebody is critical."
Monica de Greiff doesn't accept this. She says the fear of losing an American visa stunts democratic dialogue in South America. "The idea of legalization is bigger, it's spreading [in Colombia]," she says.
But "people, because of what happened for example to my father, they will never, never take a strong position on that, even if they talk privately about it."
Lies about Holland Despite the American goal of universal support for drug prohibition, a few countries have taken slightly different directions. The Netherlands is the most famous of these.
Holland is a signatory to international prohibition agreements and continues aggressively to fight most forms of drug trafficking. But since the mid-1970s, the Dutch have made it possible to possess marijuana and sell it in tightly regulated shops. Possession of small amounts of other drugs also is not normally punished. "Harm-reduction" programs, such as providing clean needles to heroin addicts, are central to Dutch policy.
For taking this route, Holland has been fiercely attacked. In a series of statements in 1998, Barry McCaffrey, the outgoing head of the White House's office of National Drug Control Policy, savaged Dutch policy. Dutch teenagers used marijuana at three times the rate of American teens, McCaffrey claimed. "The murder rate in Holland is double that in the United States. The per capita crime rates are much higher than [in] the United States--that's drugs." The Dutch approach, he said, was "an unmitigated disaster."
None of what he said was true.
While figures vary from study to study, most research shows that far fewer Dutch teenagers use marijuana than do American teens. The American murder rate is actually 4 1/2 times higher than the Dutch rate. And while the "unmitigated disaster" claim is vague, it seems unsupportable given that the rate of heroin abuse--considered a key drug indicator--is nearly three times higher in the United States than in Holland.
UN succumbs to pressure Subtler forms of pressure and influence are used by the United States in a forum that is central to international drug policy: the UN.
The UN has two main bodies that control international drug policies and programs: the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) and the UN International Drug Control Program (UNDCP). The INCB, made up of 13 people, monitors compliance with international agreements on drugs. The UNDCP handles the UN's drug programs.
Many public health officials identify the INCB as being most active in enforcing strict prohibition.
This view is supported by the Australian incident in 1996, when Gelbard made his "very strong hint" that were Australia to go ahead with a heroin maintenance trial, its opium poppy industry might have its license revoked. It is the INCB that has that power.
More recent events in Australia strengthen the idea of the INCB as enforcer. Australia also has been working toward the creation of "safe injection rooms"--clean, medically supervised sites where heroin addicts can inject heroin without fear of arrest. The United States strongly opposes such projects. In November 1999, the INCB warned the Australians that if they went ahead, the INCB might embargo Tasmania's opium poppy industry--exactly the same "hint" made by the U.S. State Department in 1996.
"The American influence on the narcotics board is overwhelming and unfortunate," the health minister for the Australian Capital Territory, Michael Moore, told the Canberra Times. Pennington agrees. "INCB has throughout been led by the policies of the U.S. State Department." The State Department said it was unable to comment on these views.
U.S. influence can be felt at other levels in the UN, too. For example, the UN's World Health Organization was subjected to intense U.S. pressure when it commissioned a report on cocaine use in the early 1990s. Two years of research involving dozens of experts in 22 cities and 19 countries led to a finished report in 1995. On March 15 of that year, the WHO issued a press release announcing the publication of the results. The project, the WHO proudly noted in the press release, was "the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken."
But the WHO never issued the report.
WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl says that after the press release was issued, the organization asked several experts to peer-review the report. After "two to three years," some of the experts reported, and the WHO decided the report was "technically unsound"--despite the fact that in 1995, responding to complaints from the United States, the WHO had defended the report as "important and objective."
The WHO has no plans to do further research on cocaine.
The secret report The unreleased document is critical of existing drug policies and many of the beliefs about cocaine that support those policies. Among its startling conclusions:
* "Occasional cocaine" use, not "intensive" or "compulsive" consumption, is "the most typical pattern of cocaine use."
* "Most participating countries agree that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems."
* The chewing of coca leaves by South American aborigines "appears to have no negative health effects and has positive, therapeutic, sacred and social functions."
* Educational materials on cocaine tend to be "superficial, lurid, excessively negative."
* Public education campaigns often promote "myths and stereotypes about the nature and extent of cocaine-related health effects."
* "Most countries believe there needs to be more assessment of the adverse effects of current drug policies and strategies."
* "Education, treatment and rehabilitation programs should be increased to counterbalance the current overreliance on law enforcement measures."
According to a former senior UN International Drug Control Program official, this landmark report was withheld because the United States pressed the WHO to bury it. If it was released, American officials warned, the United States would pull its funding from the section of WHO responsible for the report. The U.S. State Department says it is unable to comment on this allegation.
However, Hartl confirms that this threat was made. In a May 1995 meeting, according to the WHO's records, Neil Boyer, the American representative to the organization, "took the view that [the WHO's] program on substance abuse was headed in the wrong direction."
As proof, Boyer cited the cocaine study, along with "evidence of the WHO's support for harm-reduction programs and previous WHO association with organizations that supported the legalization of drugs." Boyer concluded that "if WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug-control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed."
Despite such pressure, Australia's Pennington says public health officials around the world are increasingly dissenting from a status quo that sees criminal prohibition as central to drug policy. Friction is growing, he says, between officials who want to try novel approaches, such as harm-reduction methods, and the American government, with its insistence on sticking strictly to the war on drugs.
That conflict has yet to seriously break into the international political arena. But if the growing opposition to the war on drugs starts to find a voice among senior world leaders--as the 1998 protest letter to Annan showed it might--it will be increasingly difficult for the American government to cajole, manipulate or bully other countries. Someday, the nations of the world may finally hold an open debate on the wisdom of international drug prohibition.
Source: Chicago Sun-Times (IL)
CannabisNews Articles - Dan Gardner
Comment #10 posted by Ethan Russo, MD on January 08, 2001 at 08:10:39 PT:|
|Pete's link provides access to the full texts of the UN Drug treaties. I previously tried to get the Single Convention information, but the UN wanted $86 for it.|
I quick perusal uncovers interesting facts. Article 7 freely allows usage of Schedule I drugs (i.e., cannabis) for scientific and "very limited medical purposes." Thus the USA could allow medical marijuana if it so wished. It is merely using the Single Convention as a pretense for jailing its sick and dying. That alone merits investigation as a violation of human rights.
Interestingly, the 1988 treaty puts TCH and its isomers in Schedule I, but that did not stop the USA from allowing Marinol (synthetic THC) to be placed in Schedule III. Aren't we in violation of the treaty? Isn't this all an arbitrary and capricious process? I feel that it is.
Article 29 of the 1971 Treaty allows any nation to denounce it. Why are we not doing this? It should be initiated in every concerned country.
Erich Goode, on page 297 of his book, The Marijuana Smokers, indicates that any nation could allow the use of cannabis if its prohibition interferes with the nation's own constitutional authority. Canada has done exactly this, and the USA should, based on the inherent authority of the Bill of Rights. (Remember that, John Ashcroft?) It took a constitutional amendment to outlaw alcohol, but cannabis was squelched on the basis of questionable tax and interstate commerce provisions.
Does anybody know a good constitutional lawyer that would like to take this on? Does anyone know how to initiate a repeal of the Single Convention Treaty, or at least its denunciation?
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|Comment #9 posted by Pete W (UK) on January 08, 2001 at 04:37:32 PT|
|Go to this link to denounce the UN Single Convention.|
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Comment #8 posted by kaptinemo on January 07, 2001 at 13:46:23 PT:|
|It would be real interesting to find out which of the 'gentlemen' listed by FF have holdings in pharmaceutical companies that would face enormous competition from cannabis based medicinals. |
Such as Georgie Too's Daddy did:
From the "Unuthorized Biography of George Bush (that's the new Prez's Daddy - k):
'There were also reports of serious abuses by Bush, especially in the area of conflicts of interest. In one case, Bush intervened in March, 1981 in favor of Eli Lilly & Co., a company of which he had been a director in 1977-79. Bush had owned $145,000 of stock in Eli Lilly until January, 1981, after which it was placed in a blind trust, meaning that Bush allegedly had no way of knowing whether his trust still owned shares in the firm or not. The Treasury Department had wanted to make the terms of a tax break for
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|Comment #7 posted by freedom fighter on January 07, 2001 at 13:33:17 PT|
|ATTENTION TO ALL CANNABIS LOVERS!|
If you would read the latest annual report from UN INBC, one would find out that everywhere you go, there will always be cannabis in that part of world. Common thread in their report is that Cannabis is everywhere! In short, We the cannabis lovers have overgrown the governments everywhere!
No cannabis lover should feel so alone any more! It is a world wide thing. Somewhere on this earth, there is a 300 thousand hectares(2.5acres per hectare), wild cannabis are being grown by nature. No government can go there and cut them down.
We the people of this world shall overgrow the "government"! One will get caught and 100 more will take his place. No one can stop this!
LONG LIVE THE FREEDOM!
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|Comment #6 posted by dddd on January 07, 2001 at 13:00:06 PT|
|Sir FreedomFighter....Thanx for the excellent info....Outstandingly astounding!........dddd|
[ Post Comment ]
Comment #5 posted by Ethan on January 07, 2001 at 12:32:20 PT:|
|Another excellent article from the Great White North. Harry Anslinger swore that no one would ever be able to contravene the Single Convention Treaty he contrived. It is time that we proved him wrong. People around the world must unite to repeal this travesty of the War on Drugs.|
[ Post Comment ]
|Comment #4 posted by freedom fighter on January 07, 2001 at 11:09:17 PT|
Edouard Armenakovich BABAYAN Russian Federation 2005
"At present, control is exercised over more than 116 narcotic drugs under the 1961 Convention. They include mainly natural products such as opium and its derivatives, morphine, codeine and heroin, but also synthetic narcotics such as methadone and pethidine, as well as cannabis and cocaine"
Are they tryin to allude that cannabis and cocaine synthetic?
Check that site out and maybe bother them by writing to these folks!
[ Post Comment ]
|Comment #3 posted by freedom fighter on January 07, 2001 at 10:45:04 PT|
|For other major narcotic plant, marihuana, the cultivation areas used to be concentrated mainly in the northeastern part of Thailand. However, from 1987, the eradication and severe suppression measure had led to declination in the marihuana originally growing area and started spreading to various provinces in different regions. Moreover, marihuana from neighboring countries was imported for both domestic and international market. |
http://www.oncb.go.th/ Some of you may know that in Thailand, they are extremely strict with their drug offenders. They kill them! But still, the numbers keep piling up.
I am trying to find out more about the UN INCB
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|Comment #2 posted by dddd on January 07, 2001 at 10:43:45 PT|
| If you look at the big picture,,,step back and take an overall view.....you can see a paralell between the most powerful drug dealers,and the USA.|
The most powerful drug dealer will kill you or hurt you if you dont come around to his way of doing business,or infringe on his control.....The US will take away your funding,,make life miserable,,or kill you if you dont follow its anti-drug,self proclaimed mandate.
It's like the world is the USs' neighborhood,and if you dont agree with the biggest bully in the hood,then he will destroy you.,,and even if you do try to cooperate with the bully,he will probably destroy you anyway,because he is the biggest,most arrogant,and rich bully on the planet.........
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|Comment #1 posted by freedom fighter on January 07, 2001 at 09:57:44 PT|
|The UN has two main bodies that control international drug policies and programs: the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) and the UN International Drug Control Program (UNDCP). The INCB, made up of 13 people, monitors compliance with international agreements on drugs. The UNDCP handles the UN's drug programs.|
Who are those people?
[ Post Comment ]